Sunday, September 1, 2013
Is nuclear energy is clean and safe 2014 ?
Given the growing worldwide demand for energy , and with the growing global concern the problems of climate change and the high rate of temperature rise in the biosphere and the anticipated catastrophic effects on the entire world in this century , the sight was (before the Fukushima disaster after the earthquake in Japan 11/3/2011 ) heading towards nuclear energy as an alternative to traditional energy sources through the burning of fossil fuels (coal , gas, oil and its derivatives) which today almost half of the pollution that affects the world contribute and lead to climate changes that we see, there is concrete evidence for the last two decades of the twentieth century, when resolved observations of the high rate started producing temperature and increase the amount of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere , the debate among scientists about the causes of climate change and steadily heat Tnamea in this century.With the monopoly on nuclear energy major industrial nations , has today achieved a target for the development of industrialized countries , especially those countries with significant economic growth , such as China and India. And today we witness blatant trend towards the establishment of nuclear reactors in the various regions of the Third World but also in the world of late also . Hence the importance of this study , which examines the risks of nuclear energy and its alternatives , is also the argument that nuclear energy is clean energy is to refute , so that the extent of contamination , uranium mining raw and manufactured to provide nuclear fuel to be accompanied , as study the extent of pollution great result indicates disclose the use of raw material at least focused and not less polluting conventional power plants that run on conventional fossil fuels , as well as the argument that nuclear energy is less expensive and available sources the least harmful is questionable for the environment.As well as reveal the untenability of nuclear energy in terms of the possibility of exhaustion of the raw material in less than two decades if the total number of reactors in the world , which of them around 2020 , mainly due to the depletion of good quality of raw materials with a high concentration expected of uranium.Will not lose sight of the discussion of the problems of the reactors in terms of the dependence on imported technology and fall into the abyss of borrowing and debt and economic dependence , scientific and risks of dealing with radioactive substances and the resulting nuclear waste is still the world discussed the possibilities are best suited or stored or re-used for the disposal , that is to say, subject to constant supervision Nuclear Energy Authority and terrorist threats . At the same time pull to rise and lower produced the pace of investment of clean, renewable energy sources in the world , such as wind energy, solar energy , etc., and the cost of energy over time with the development of technology , whereas increasing nuclear energy prices steadily .Pollution of the environmentWhen we speak putting the burden on the environment , we mean the different components of pollution : human , air, water , soil and the built environment. What are the incidents that contributed to the pollution of the elements of the environment following nuclear tests and then throw atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 ?In 1957, there were leaks of radioactive reactor Urals in Russia as a result of corrosion in the walls of repositories with a high level of radiation . In the UK , the same year there was another leak in a nuclear reactor . She also appeared problems of scattered radiation by accident Island Miles three in 1979 in the United States of America, which almost led to disaster , great, do not lose sight of the reference to the Dimona reactor near us , the experts agreed the risks of large on the entire region and eventually reactors after the Fukushima nuclear disaster star of not less than the amount of damage caused by the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.The reactor core melts only partially many accidents , including the following reactors (1): -- Ontario - Canada, in 1952.- Idaho - United States , 1955.- Sellafield - Great Britain in 1957.- Santa Susanna - California, in 1959.- Crossover chapel - Scotland, in 1967.- Lawson reactor - Switzerland, in 1969.We reactor Chernobyl example of the harm that may result from the fusion of a partial nuclear reactors , there is a cloud of radiation moves after the Chernobyl accident in certain areas of the world, but noted some effects in Eastern Europe, especially when the rain radioactively contaminated with radiation , the water and the green grass animal feed contaminate different, which in all likelihood has achieved all of our body and . imported meat , as well as by the widespread pollution and habitat for biodiversity in nature He has hundreds of thousands of people in the former Soviet Union who have been exposed to radiation , and even the health of patients is clearly treated . Here are some statistics about the damage caused by the Chernobyl disaster :Tell us the latest United Nations reports on the results of the nuclear disaster at Chernobyl , where he helped the cancer or is on the verge of death of 3,940 people, with about 586 000 people radioactive contamination , including 200,000 employees , the redevelopment of the site were injured, in addition to the evacuated 116,000 people who were from areas around the reactor , and injured 270,000 people ; contaminated vast areas is at 200,000 square kilometers, ( 2) estimated.Should not be added to this risk , including the cost of the physical and psychological treatment and disruption of production and pollution of the natural environment and threaten the stability of the state , at the price of producing energy from nuclear reactors ?Today we have a clear example of Japan after the disaster that seismic northeast Japan on Friday, 03/11/2011, rocked , where contaminated drinking water , food and biodiversity in the sea, and commissioned radiation located on the countries on the Pacific , and possibly the roam around the world via the transfer of hot and cold water streams , oceans and revolves around the world .Accordingly, the world today is tackled observed everything that is made in Japan , even micro - electronic spare parts and large vehicles radiocarbon dating , cause great damage to the Japanese economy in the long run will be monitored.If we have a comparison between patients' radiation , we find from the Chernobyl accident and damage that had been caused by interference with asbestos that about 250000-400000 deaths from diseases related to asbestos damaged , lung disease mesothelioma and asbestosis disease is to come during the 35 years ( 3) occur . These injuries are only expected in the EU , so why prevent the EU engaging asbestos strictly prohibited in 1999 , while it does not prevent the reactors after work, while the number of injuries increased the Chernobyl accident alone number of people with damaged asbestos ?There are risks , disposal of nuclear waste , Kallioranjom irradiated , the more private companies kept poor for thousands of years in bunkers or in the layers of geological deep, and the areas of nuclear waste disposal is quite limited and is used by some states to combat piracy and was buried in the poor countries or in the depths of the sea. but youNuclear power stations are safe?According to a report institution of nuclear radiation protection IRSN , and in 2008 the proportion of accidents and environmental safety at nuclear facilities by 56% on the number of accidents in 2005 ( from 131 incidents in 2005-205 incidents in 2008) (4 ) were compared. For example , in a system in Triscastin Sukatri Socatri , 20 m3 of liquid radioactive leak outside tank farms , some fuel was flowing with the rain water drain lines , while others in the ground ( 5 ) leak. Also has radioactive water has leaked from a Japanese nuclear power plant after the earthquake in Japan in 2007 , and huge amounts leaked into the sea after a shake 11/3/2011 from the Fukushima reactors.It can check the details of the incidents Thorp Thorp 2005 read at the Sellafield site Britons on page 16 of the report the same , as well as incident other plant in Fleuros Fleurus, Belgium in 2006 , and that on page 17 of the same report , and other incidents , many in France and Japan and other countries where it was possible that some of them lead to environmental disasters and injuries to workers on a large scale .Was in 2007 a study on the effects of nuclear reactors in Germany leukemia in children and adolescents under 28 years who live in more than a radius of five kilometers from the reactor, as it turned out, the probability of infection in the vicinity increase the residence of the nuclear reactor (6 ) carried out in old age.A study was working in 15 countries in radioactive sites ( with the exception of workers in the mines of uranium mining ) conducted and published in 2005 , emphasized the increased risk of working conditions in these installations cancer and leukemia , although radiation exposure is easy. The study involved 407 000 workers and employees to observe the intensity of radiation at a rate of 19.4 ms Svrit that the allowable 50 ms Svrit is exposed to the year . It was found to increase the probability of cancer in different proportions according to the intensity of the radiation ( 7).Studies show today medical effects of nuclear radiation Almoana for workers in nuclear reactors and people living near nuclear reactors , where increasing incidence of leukemia in a period of about five years after exposure , and show cancer during the period between 10 - 40 years old. And the release of radioactive gases collected nuclear reactors at the station and in the air when it drops its radiation (8).Also proved to study English, the proportion of injuries to children under the age of ten years from leukemia between 1954 - 1984 in the village Ciscal Seascale three kilometers from the Sellafield plant for rehabilitation and the use of spent fuel from a group scientists incident radiation from the nuclear power plant compound (9).In another study on nuclear plant (136 pages) in the UK , France and the United States , Spain, Japan , Germany , Canada, was found to increase the proportion of injuries to children under 9 years of between 14 - 21 percent ( 10).The latest study , the effects of nuclear reactors to the population in relation to the distance a link between them has in Germany , published in 2008 found that the greater effect is directly proportional with the approach of the reactor , but the discovery of the most important was it , the impact on the population be extended miles (11 ) in the region by up to seventy .This study opens the door to the questions on the expected extent of the injuries among the workers in this or that nuclear facility , as well as the high probability of lung cancer as a result of the exposure of workers in the uranium mining sites to radiation (12). There are also risks that contaminated by dust from the mining industry and its transition caused by the wind to distant regions , and the transfer of radiation with rain water into the ground water .When we went to the nuclear plant and embarked on the census occasional risks, we can continue to limit to no end. It covered the nuclear power plant to reduce the risk of fire , the importance of other installations , the danger of errors committed by employees and workers and technicians in the course of their work ; There is no doubt that the consequences of the fire can be simple, but they can be destructive if they . cooling systems or other devices minute affected nuclear facility , especially electronic ones and complex computerThere is a risk of a technical breakdown in the provision of energy or water station , as the Fukushima reactors in Japan after the earthquake 11/3/2011 , probably due to lack of mastery of work and drop and collision mechanisms or equipment transferred by the movement of materials within the plant happens.In nuclear plants Ludd the risk of explosion is very high, as a result of the radiation decomposition radiolysis gases , or by the decomposition of a portion of the material by radiation , such as compressed natural gas and hydrogen in the container (13). Not to mention the risk of a terrorist act or maybe a plane crash or a celestial body made !And what will happen to these reactors in the event of revolutions and social chaos in the developing countries of the world , as is happening at present, is in the Middle East? Not be excluded that the security is the loss of control of nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel , and possibly use it to threaten the security of the world !nuclear wasteThe average commercial nuclear reactor production of nuclear medium and low - radiation is 300 m3 per year , and about 30 tons per year of intense radiation solids . Producing has reactors in the world each year about 12,000 tons of spent fuel radiation higher the amount of nuclear waste in the world in 2010 to more than a third million tons, most of which are stored in the reactor site or sent for rehabilitation in France , or buried deep in the branches What most worries scientists today contact with water of radioactive waste and pollution on the biosphere access layer ( 14).These fears are justified, as detected radioactive leaks at the Hanford plant - and Washington in the United States (15 ) . And similar incidents do not doubt that they are repeated , but many of them remain under wraps , especially in the military sites.Is uranium in the operation of nuclear reactors after it . For about a year and a half, which is still glowing after it has been placed using more than 67% of uranium 235 It uses some of depleted uranium in weapons production in the rehabilitation of some of the other for the use of new nuclear reactors , while other bridges in deep geological layers (16).In the latter case , where they are resorting to dumping of nuclear waste , there are no guarantees for the Non-Proliferation of radioactivity into the ground and then arriving in layer biosphere through the hundreds of thousands or millions of years, for the depletion of radiation (17 ) that spread around the world threatening very quickly.Therefore we can say that the treatment of nuclear waste issue is very important and serious, but disposed of in the deep sea and below ground in the sands of the desert or the deep geological layers , or in certain areas where the reactor itself means not mean that the damage will not happen to us in the near future , or it will not be on future generations and contaminate food sources and water strategy.performanceAccordingly, the input required in the Battle of the production of energy from nuclear reactors into account the way in which we deal with the nuclear waste management, radiation control. In the UK there are several landfills for waste nuclear and landfills flat waste less pollution in the region Drigg as well as a good our minds to Dounreay famous in Scotland ( a depth of 65 meters above the ground) that do not still know the British government , as to his problem Altheloithih , which is adjacent to the sea to solve the erosion began to approach him , be exposed to the sea. Was to get rid of large amounts of contaminated in the past , and will take caused problematic political and ecological together a long time.The British company has good environment of the injection hole initiated in 2007 with the implementation of the project by four hundred , so close and prevent the pores of the soil, that the movement of water to and from him. The project is expected to be completed within 2 - 4 years (18). We have no idea that this project has been carried out is !There are areas closed in several places of the world , the cement stores with large thicknesses or types of minerals that is buried enriched prevent the passage . Due to the radioactive radiation , such as lead, the plants with the high cost of building Are we ready to build facilities for the disposal of nuclear waste , it is nature ( earth movements or the movement of ground water and volcanoes , for example) to endure these castles ? Is it possible to restore it in the future when the technology is recycled safer and less expensive? Can we protect them in exceptional cases , such as wars and periods of political instability ?This confirms the fact that the issue of nuclear waste storage is not a simple question or safe.Some say it will reuse the plutonium in the camps for the development of technology over time to be, but also recognize the scientists that this technology today with many problems . The best candidate for use in MOX reactors which run together to uranium and plutonium , but this system also suffers from the problem of cost and safety . Do you have experience with the UK to depleted uranium in a plant Sellafield Sellafield use again, it is not a process economically feasible and that there are some security problems radiation in dealing with this Article , where he in re-shipment of these materials to England to Japan 1999 (20 ) delivered .Well, after protests escalated leak large amounts (83,000 liters) of liquid heavy radiation during the period of 9 months , while not seen until it was too late. As elsewhere in the world has established three plants for the recycling of spent fuel intense radiation in the United States of America, one of them did not succeed in Bsarmacol production , and was all (21 ) closed .And if we know that the cost of depleted uranium - processing for reuse is very high ; comprehensive cost per kilogram between 1000-2000 U.S. dollars (22 ) in 2006 and that means that prices move on the rise ; unchanged when the cost of setting up nuclear power plants. On the other hand , to decrease the prices of clean, renewable energy in the direction .It is true to say that some of the reactors produce plutonium and thus release imminent , the problem of exhaustion of uranium , but these reactors with sodium sulfate (LNG ) for cooling and therefore more dangerous than the reactors traditional and Nuclear Project French Superphénix the work began in 1985 , the project had failed, which ended close in 1998 after a loss of U.S. $ 15 billion (23).Accordingly , nuclear power is at the present time is not sustainable , in terms of the use of natural uranium limited amount in the world, which is expected to begin in the impoverished limited within decades time , or in the form of damage to the environment in terms of production reaches of large amounts of greenhouse gases through the stages of production and the establishment of nuclear fuel and reactors after the end of its life , or with regard to the severity of the radioactive material , the damage extends over millions of years to come demolished . What is the solution ?To answer this question you should be asking many questions about the traditional nuclear reactors :* What are the precautions that should be manageable in the course of mining and manufacturing stages ?* Why is radioactive waste? You get rid of it once and stores processed or recycled , and how?* You will be with something radioactive nuclear waste for the defense industry ?* Do we have the remains buried in deep geological layers of groundwater pollution of our waters to come on which we depend for future generations , as we leave healthy based on the success of sustainable development projects , based on the human " sense ?* What is the amount of radiation that will be issued for these reactors under normal operating conditions and the water is cooled by Uranium in it?* What is the damage this radiation on humans and food and water on both the short-and long -term , and at the global level?* Do you have produced sufficient means of security in the Arab world for the production of uranium and deal with the waste from reactors after years ?* If the safety factor inherent in our national culture at the required level , so that makes us confident , completely out of control of the radiation risks?* Do we have had cases of radioactive contamination in the world to learn from them ?* Can we be more cautious and the accuracy of the Japanese who were exposed to the disaster of Fukushima after the earthquake 11/3/2011 ?
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